Loom is a mechanical device which is used to produce woven fabric by the insertion of warp and weft yarn. In weaving technology; loom is the principle mechanical device for weaving. Various types of loom are used for doing the weaving task. Various types of designed fabric are produced by changing the machine setting.
Loom is a mechanical device which interweaves yarns to fabric, that’s fabrics are suitable for use as dress or industrial uses.
Classification of loom: Fabric is produced by the means of loom. In the very beginning of the fabric manufacturing history, man used hand loom for fabric production. Day by day, the weaving mechanism is changed by the development of loom. In the modern times, the loom which is used for fabric manufacturing, they have high production capacity as well as complex design production capacity.
Loom is classified mainly three types. Classification of Loom is given below:
- Conventional Loom: Conventional Loom is classified as –
- Hand Loom
- Plain Loom
- Twill Loom
- Dobby Loom
- Jacquard Loom
- Automatic Loom: Automatic loom is classified as –
- Modern Loom
- Missile Loom or Projectile Loom
- Rapier Loom
- Water Jet Loom
- Air Jet Loom
- Special Loom
Loom is also classified into two types depending on the shuttle:
- Shuttle Loom: Shuttle loom is that loom where weft yarn is inserting through the warp yarn by the means of shuttle. It the above chart conventional and automatic loom is considered as the shuttle loom. Special types of shuttle loom are short loom, broad loom, pile loom, gauge loom and tri-axial loom etc.
- Shuttle less Loom: In a shuttle less loom, weft yarn is inserting through the warp yarn by the means of projectile, rapier, air or water. The entire shuttle less loom is called modern loom. This type of loom has more production capacity than the shuttle loom.
In jute fabric manufacturing, shuttle loom is used but in modern cotton textile mill, modern loom is used for fabric production.