Cotton Fiber | Best Physical And Chemical Properties Of Cotton

Cotton Fiber

Cotton is a cellulosic fiber. It is important to know the physical and chemical properties of cotton fiber. Firstly, it has worldwide popularity for its variety of use. Besides, cotton fiber is the most used fiber for producing various types of fabric all over the world. Cotton Fabrics are more comfortable to wear than other fiber products. After all, it is comfortable to wear in all seasons. If cotton fiber is properly ginned it becomes soft and makes it easy to use for dyeing when it has a high absorbency power. It has good strength and good drape ability at the same time.

Physical And Chemical Properties Of Cotton

Like all textile fibers, cotton has its own physical and chemical properties which require to know for better processing in spinning, weaving, knitting, dyeing, printing as well as finishing. It is important to know the physical and chemical properties of cotton fiber. Here, I describe the physical and chemical properties of cotton fiber.

Physical Properties of Cotton:

The followings are the physical properties of cotton fibers. They are-

  1. Color: The color of cotton fiber could be white, creamy white, bluish-white, yellowish white, or grey.
  2. Tensile Strength: Cotton is a moderately strong fiber. Moreover, it has a tenacity of 3-5 gm/den. Moisture affects the strength of cotton greatly when the wet strength of cotton is 20%, which is higher than dry strength.
  3. Elongation at break: Cotton does not stress easily. It has an elongation at a break of 5-10%.
  4. Elastic Recovery: Cotton is inelastic and rigid fiber. Although, at a 2% extension it has an ER of 74% and at a 5% extension it has an ER of 45%.
  5. Specific Gravity: Specific gravity of cotton fiber is 1.54.
  6. Moisture Regain (MR %): Standard moisture regain of cotton fiber is 8.5.
  7. Effect of Heat: Cotton has excellent resistance to degradation by heat. But, it begins to turn yellow after several hours at 1200C and decomposes marked at 1500C. As a result of oxidation, the cotton fiber becomes damaged severally after a few minutes at 2400C. Lastly, cotton burns in the air.
  8. Effect of Sun Light: There is a gradual loss of strength when cotton exposes to sunlight and the fiber turn yellow. The degradation of cotton by oxidation happens when heat promotes and encourage. Altogether, by sunlight, much of the damage causes by UV light and by the short weaves of visible light.
  9. Effect of Age: Cotton shows a small loss of strength when stored carefully. After 50 years of storage, cotton may differ only slightly from the new fibers.

Chemical Properties of Cotton:

Cotton is a natural cellulosic fiber and it has some chemical properties. The followings are the chemical properties of cotton fiber. They are-

  1. Effect of Acids: Cotton is attacked by hot dilute acids or cold concentrated acids which disintegrates. Indeed, it is not affected by acids.
  2. Effects of Alkalis: Cotton has excellent resistance to alkalis. It swells in caustic alkalis ( NaOH) but it does not damage. However, it can wash repeatedly in soap solution without any problem.
  3. Effect of Organic Solvent: Cotton has high resistance to normal cleaning solvents. Meanwhile, cotton is dissolved by the copper complexes, such as cuprammonium hydroxide, cupriethylene diamine, and concentrated at 70% H2SO4.
  4. Effects of Insects: Cotton is not attacked by moth-grubs or beetles at least.
  5. Effect of Micro Organism: Cotton is attacked by fungi and bacteria. Mildew will feed on cotton fabric, rotting and weakling the materials. Mildew and bacteria will flourish on cotton under hot and humid conditions. They can be protected by impregnation with certain types of chemicals. Copper Naphthenate is one of the chemicals for use.

The above physical and chemical properties will indeed help us to be careful about the processing of cotton in the different stages of processing from spinning to garment making.

29 thoughts on “Cotton Fiber | Best Physical And Chemical Properties Of Cotton”

  1. Thank you what you given notes about cotton it’s very useful to textile student I get lot of knowledge about cotton for your note.


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