The fibers that come from the inner bark of the plants are known as bast fiber. Jute is a bast fiber. Different types of natural and man-made fibers are available in the world. So it is essential to know the properties of fibers. Without that it is not possible to separate one fiber from others. Every fiber has its own properties.
Jute is a natural fiber. It has some physical and chemical properties. Following properties are the properties of jute.
- Physical Properties:
- Ultimate length: 1.5 – 4 mm
- Ultimate diameter: 0.015 – 0.020 mm
- No. of ultimate in X-section: 6 – 10
- Fibers length: 5 – 12 ft.
- Color: White, Off White, Yellow, Brown, Grey, Golden
- Strength (Tenacity): 3 – 4 gm/den
- Elongation: 1.7% at the break
- Specific Gravity: 1.5
- Moisture Regain(MR%): 13.75%
- Resiliency: Bad
- Dimensional Stability: Good
- Abrasion Resistance: Average
- Effect of Light and Heat: Average
- Effect of Micro Organism: Good(better than Cotton)
- Chemical Properties:
- Effect of Acids: Easily damaged by hot dilute Acids and conc. cold Acid.
- Effect of Alkalis: Fibers are damaged by strong alkali. Fibers losses weight when it heated with caustic soda.
- Effect of Bleaches: Resistant to bleaching agents (Bleaching agent, H2O2, NaOcl, Naclo2, Na2O2, CH3COOH, KMnO4, etc.)
- Effect of Light: Color changes slightly in presence of sun light. It happens due to presence of lignin in fiber.
- Effect of Mildew: Prevention ability is better than Cotton and Linen.
- Dyeing ability: Easy to dyeing. Basic dye is used to color jute fiber.
Mainly Jute fibers are composed of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin. It is harder than cotton or other fibers. It is for the presence of lignin in its structure. Emulsion is used to make it soft for spinning. It is weaker than other fibers. Its extension ability is less than other natural fibers.
The physical and chemical properties of jute can vary depending on region. Atmospheric condition and temperature has a great effect on the properties of jute. Properties of seeds also have effect on the properties of jute. Recently different types of changes are brought in the properties of jute seeds. Recently genome sequence of jute is invented by a Scientist. So in future we will get such types of jute which is better than present one.
Different types of machineries and chemicals are used to evaluate properties of jute. So, now it will be easy to find out jute from others fiber.