Production And Productivity || Basic Concepts Of Productivity


Production is related with the productive work. This term is both refer the production and service provided by the men or other source. It is mostly used in the production related sector. It is very important to know the definition of production. Normally production means to produce something by a process. In the other hand production means the integrated effort of Land, Labor, Capital and Organization. It is very important to measure the production of an industry or an organization. In this article I will emphasis on production and productivity.


Productivity is very important to compare with the two different production units. By measuring productivity, we can determine the progress or decrees of a company related with production. Followings are the definition of productivity. They are-

  • Productivity is the ratio between output and input.
  • Productivity is concerned with the efficient utilization of resources (Input) in producing goods and services (Output). We can measure the productivity as follow:

If, Productivity = P

Output = O

And Input = I

According to Productivity Definition

Productivity, P = O/I

Basic Concepts of Productivity

Productivity is the important terms in the new day. Everyone tries to improve their productivity by utilizing their limited resources. If one can find out the obstacles’ in the path of improvement then he or she can take necessary steps to remove that are obstacles. Here, I will compare two production units for giving clear concept about productivity.

Production Unit 01

Production = 10,000 unit.

Employment = 50 no

Hours = 8   hour per day

Days = 25 days

So, Production P =10,000/ (50*8*25) = 1 unit

And Production Unit 02

Production = 12,000 unit.

Employment = 60 no

Hours = 8 hour per day

Days = 25 days

So, Production P =12,000/ (60*8*25) = 1 unit

From the above, I have take two changes in the two production unit; they are production and men power. In the both stage I did not change the total hour, days. So, it’s your time to calculate the productivity in your industry.

If we can change the productivity ration in upward then it will sure to get success. Remember it, today is better than yesterday and tomorrow will be better than today. Best of luck.

Sewing Needle Selection || Important Points For Selection Of Sewing Needle

Sewing is done by the needle. Sewing operation is by hand sewing other is done by the help of machine. In the modern times, sewing machine is used for sew the different parts of a product. During sewing the needle passed through the fabric and connected two or more parts by producing loops between this two. Different sewing techniques are used for sew the fabric.

Sewing Needle Selection: It is very important to select the right needle for the right operation. If the needle size does not match with the fabric character and the sewing threads then it may cause the sewing quality and make huge loss. So it is required to concern about the needle size. Needle size is expressed in metric size it is denoted by Nm. Needle size is expressed by measuring the diameter of the blade. Say, if the diameter of the blade is 0.7m the needle size will be 70Nm. So, one can buy the needle by using this system.

Important Points for Selection of Sewing Needle: Different points are required to consider during needle selection. They are-

  • For the finer fabric, needle and sewing thread should be finer.
  • If the needle is finer than sewing thread then the thread cannot move easily through the needle.
  • If the sewing thread is courser than needle then it will generate more friction. This will generate heat. For this reason, thread breakage will be increased and it will hamper the production rate.
  • For we use finer needle than sewing thread then the sewing thread will not take position perfectly at the needle long groove.
  • In the other hand. If the thread is finer than the needle then it may cause slipped stitch at the needle. The needle will fail to create perfect size of loops.
  • Now, if the needle is finer than required fabric then sewing needle will deflect and become curve with the action of throat plate. It is unexpected to a production officer.

From the above point, it is clear that; needle should be matched with the fabric and sewing thread. Perfect combination of fabric, needle and sewing thread can give fault free sewing. So, be careful during needle selection for the sewing operation.

Payment Types || Important Payment Terms And Its Uses In Business Dealings

Payment is the major points in business dealings. The payment is done between the seller and the buyer. This payment is done in various ways. I have written about the quotation and price fixation methods of products. All of the dealings become success by a payment. When a manufacturer gets his or her payment he or she becomes very happy. He becomes interested to deal more with that’s buyer.

In the modern age, most of the payment is done in online banking system. So, it becomes easy to get the payment within a short time. When a seller deals with a domestic or foreign buyer he or she should maintain a clear dealing methods. Different payment terms are used for these dealings.

Payments types: Business man follows some payment methods during dealings. They are-

  1. Spot Cash: If the buyer gives the payment during goods receiving then this dealing is called spot cash. Cash is given in hand to hand.
  2. Prompt Cash: If the buyer gives the payment within short time after sending goods challan.
  3. Net Cash: If the payment fixed after reducing commission and other expenses then it is called net cash. It is the actual cost of the goods.
  4. Cash With Order (C.W.O): If the buyer sends money during goods order then it is called cash with order. Buyer gives order with money.
  5. Cash on Delivery: If the buyer gives payment during goods receiving then it is called cash on delivery.
  6. Deferred payment: Sometimes buyer gives payment at a time or with some installment after receiving the goods that is called deferred payment system. Most the dealing is done in this process.
  7. Bill of Lading: In this bill all the information about the goods are enlisted.

So, there are lots of payment systems of business. The payment status depends on the size of payment. During payment, seller should give the vat and other excise duty of that’s country. It is need to take clearance of that’s country.

So, take decision by which method you will complete your deal. Always give thanks after receive the payment.