What Is Spinning? Types Of Spinning Process

What is spinning?

Spinning is the first step in textile product processing. In fact, the process of making yarns from textile fiber stands for spinning. Accordingly, there are various types of spinning methods for producing different types of yarn. Besides, if we notice, we will see that the cotton fibers convert into carded yarn, combed yarn, and rotor yarn continuously through the spinning process. Consequently, for producing these three types of cotton yarn, yarn spinning systems are also different.

In textiles, the spinning process refers to drawing out fibers from a mass and twisting them together to produce yarn or continuous thread consequently. In the man-made fiber manufacturing process, the name is also applied to the extrusion of a solution to produce fiber, This process is similar to the method by which silkworms and similar insect larvae form filaments to make their cocoons from a viscous fluid. ring spinning, open-end (rotor) spinning, and air-jet spinning are common industrial spinning techniques for yarn production.

Types Of Spinning Process
Types Of Spinning Processes

Image Source: rieter

Types of Spinning Process

The spinning process varies depending on the fiber types we want to process. There are different methods of spinning for yarn preparation. Such as-

Spinning Process For Staple Yarn

Different spinning techniques apply for Staple yarn production. When short and long staple fibers or other materials are used for the spinning process, the following are the different methods of spinning for staple yarn production:

  1. Ring Spinning
  2. Rotor Spinning
  3. Friction Spinning
  4. Self Twist Spinning
  5. Electro-Static Spinning
  6. Vortex Spinning
  7. Air Jet Spinning
  8. Twist Less Spinning

The following is a short introduction to the staple yarn spinning process and its uses. They are-

  • Ring Spinning: The most popular way of spinning yarn for textiles is called ring spinning, which drafts and twists strands using a revolving spindle and ring. Ring spinning method is widely used for producing yarn which is used in different fields such as apparel, bedding, upholstery, and industrial textiles.
  • Rotor Spinning: A high-speed rotor is used in rotor spinning, often referred to as open-end spinning, to separate and twist fibers into yarn. Rotor yarn is primarily used for producing denim and terry cloth products.
  • Friction Spinning: When friction spinning employs compressed air to spin fibers into yarn, it offers great production rates and diversity. These spinning techniques produce yarn which is used in filtration media and technical textiles.
  • Self-Twist Spinning: In self-twist spinning, yarn is made straight from roving or sliver without the need for further twisting steps. The productivity of spinning is increased with this technique. This yarn is commonly found in producing knitwear and hosiery.
  • Electro-Static Spinning: A polymer melt or solution is spun into ultrafine fibers using the electrostatic spinning process, which utilizes an electric field. It produces various nanofibers for various applications.
  • Vortex Spinning: By twisting and collecting fibers in a vortex, the vortex spinning technique produces yarn. This yarn is used for knitwear and lightweight fabric production.
  • Air Jet Spinning: The production of yarn today uses an air jet spinning process. Compressed air is used in the draft, twist, and spinning steps of this spinning process to create yarn. High productivity is provided, nonetheless. Yarn from this spinning process is used for denim and technical textiles.
  • Twist Less Spinning: Low-twist or zero-twist yarns are created using this specialist spinning technique for a variety of uses. This yarn is Used for fabrics requiring low twist and novelty yarns.

Spinning Process For Filament Yarn

According to the Reference Module in Biomedical Science, 2021, in spinning methods, a polymer solution or melt is extruded through a spinneret by the action of an external force, forming jets of stretched fibers that solidify by either drying or solidification. The following is the spinning process for filament yarn production. They are-

  1. Wet Spinning
  2. Dry Spinning
  3. Melt Spinning
  4. Bi-Component Spinning
  5. Film Splitting Reaction Spinning

The following is a short introduction to spinning filament yarn and its uses. They are-

  • Wet Spinning: Wet spinning involves extruding a polymer solution into a coagulation bath to create fibers. Wet spinning is widely used for the production of fibers such as rayon, acrylic, and spandex.
  • Dry Spinning: Fibers are created by extruding a polymer solution into a heated air or gas environment in the dry spinning process. It is a common purpose for dry spinning to create fibers that are insoluble in water or other coagulation solutions. The capacity to produce fibers with great dimensional stability and high tensile strength is provided. Acetate, acrylic, and aramid fibers are typical examples of fibers made by dry spinning.
  • Melt Spinning: This procedure creates fibers by extruding molten polymer via a spinneret. It is a very successful and economical way to make synthetic fibers like polyester, nylon, and polypropylene.
  • Bi-Component Spinning: In this type of spinning, two or more polymers are combined during the extrusion process to produce fibers with various characteristics. It has different applications in various industries such as textiles, filtration, and medical textiles.
  • Film Splitting Reaction Spinning: A reactive polymer solution is extruded and then experiences a chemical reaction to create fibers in the film splitting reaction spinning technique. Producing fibers with incredibly tiny diameters and large surface areas is possible by using these spinning processes. When tiny fibers with certain qualities are needed, it is frequently employed in applications including filtration, tissue engineering, and protective garments.

Spinning Process For Integrated Multi-Component Yarns

The following are the integrated multi-component yarn spinning process. They are-

  1. Integrated Composite Spinning
  2. Cover Spun
  3. Selfil Yarn Spinning
  4. Acro dynamic Spinning

The following is a short introduction to the integrated multi-component yarn spinning process and its uses. They are-

  • Integrated Composite Spinning: Using a combination of different fibers, integrated composite spinning produces composite yarns with improved qualities. Textile, automotive, aerospace, and the manufacture of sporting goods are just a few of the areas where integrated composite spinning is used. It permits the creation of yarns with specialized qualities to fulfill certain performance needs.
  • Cover Spun: Cover spun offers the required qualities and strength. Yarns with a core-sheath structure are used here. There are various benefits to cover-spun yarns, such as increased comfort, greater aesthetics, and better dyeability. They are frequently employed in the creation of textiles, knitwear, and ornamental items where both strength and beauty are valued.
  • Selfil Yarn Spinning: This technique produces textured yarns with inherent bulk and flexibility. However, these yarns include benefits such as greater comfort, superior insulation, and improved wrinkle resistance. Thereafter, they are frequently used in products like sweaters, socks, and upholstery textiles where softness and stretchability are sought.
  • Acrodynamic Spinning: Air-textured spinning, also known as acrodynamic spinning, produces lofty, voluminous yarns that are exceptionally soft and insulating. Besides this, these yarns offer advantages such as excellent breathability, insulation, and softness. Where a plush and luxurious texture is desired, they are widely used in various applications, such as blankets, carpets, and upholstery fabrics.

Until now, through the spinning process, various counted yarns have been produced. When different spinning frames are set for producing specific counted yarn. In spinning mills, it is essential to ensure a safe workplace for the worker and employees thus compliance is a must. Although, the manufacturer can apply 5S, TQM, Kaizen, and TPM for continuous improvement of the industry.

So, one should know the spinning process and types of spinning for practical use.

Related Articles


  • piash khan

    Staple yarn- it is made from the shorter length of fiber source. it also called spun yarn. the length of the fiber is not continuous.e.g- cotton
    Filament – Continous length of yarn. e.g silk

  • Hi, so sorry maybe it’s not good to leave my message here, but I still hope someone who need the silicone oil for sewing thread juts in time could find my message. Many thanks for your time to check my message here.

    This is Beni from Cober China. We have been producing silicone oil nearly 20 years.
    I’d love to give u general introduction as following:
    Product Name: PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane)
    Cas No: 63148-62-9
    Viscosity: 350cst/350cst/500cst/1000cst/6000cst/ect
    Appearance: colourless, transparent liquid
    Certificate: FDA, ISO, SGS granted

    If u are interested in Silicone Oil (PDMS), pls contact me!
    Warmly welcome to test our Silicone Oil (PDMS) before purchasing.
    Currently the price is getting down a lot compare with several months ago.
    Again, Great Thanks for your time, and hope I didn’t occupy your too much time.
    Best Regards!

  • Amarjeet Yadav

    I study to like

  • Sandip Gandhi

    What is different between staple yarn and filament yarn?

    • Priyanshu

      staple yarn is formed by staple or spun fibers which is short in length, while filament is long.

    • Ramasamy

      staple yarn is made from staple fibres like cotton..it has many individual fibres in its cross section.
      filament yarn is made from continuous filament or polymer.It classified as mono and multi filament yarn.

Leave your comment


error: Content is protected !!