In the textile arena, textile fiber is the equally important raw material to produce various types of textile finished products. A fiber that can be spun into yarn or processed into textile such as a woven fabric, knit fabric, lace, felt, non-woven, etc by means of an appropriate interlacing method is called a textile fiber.
A textile fiber should have at least 5 mm in length then it will be spin-able and it must be supple, flexible, and strong enough. Other properties such as elasticity, fineness, uniformity, durability, luster, and crimp should have a textile fiber more or less.
Classification of Textile Fiber:
There are various types of fiber in the market but all do have not the same characteristics. Besides, the characteristics of the fiber differ depending on the source from which it produces. Generally, textile fibers are classified into main two types they are-Natural fiber And Synthetic fiber or manmade fiber, or artificial fiber. Now I like to illustrate the classification of textile fiber below.
Therefore, natural fiber is that which produce naturally. When the source of origin could be a vegetable, animal, or mineral.
- Bast Fibers: Jute, Flax, Ramie, Hemp
- Leaf Fibers: Sisal, Abaca (Manila Hemp)
- Seed and Fruits Fibers: cotton, coir
Mineral Origin: Asbestos
Synthetic Fibers/Manmade Fibers/Artificial Fibers:
Synthetic fibers are basically formed by the polymerization of various monomers. When a man makes this type of fiber so it defines as man-made fiber or synthetic fiber. The following are the classification of synthetic fibers. They are-
Natural Polymer Based:
- Cellulosic Based: Rayon, Bambo, Acetate, Triacetate, Lyocell (Tencel)
- Protein Based: Azion, Soy silk
- Aliginate Rubber
- Starch: Polylactic Acid (PLA)
Synthetic Polymer Based:
Different synthetic polymer-based synthetic fibers such as polyamide, Polyvinyl Derivatives: PVA, PTFE, Polyvinylidene dinitrate, Polystyrene, Polyolefines, Polyurethanes: Elastomer, etc. The following are the common synthetic polymer-based synthetic fiber. They are-
- Nylon 6
- Nylon 6.6
Refractory: Metal, Glass
Basically, textile fibers are two types one is a natural fiber and another is synthetic fiber or manmade fiber, or artificial fiber. However, sometimes it can be classified based on source, polymer, botanical, zoological, chemical name, utility, fibers thermoplasticity as well as their ability to moisture absorbency. Depending on that, textile fiber can be also classified as follows. They are-
- Fiber sources: Natural or Man made Fiber.
- Polymer source: Natural or synthetic and organic or inorganic.
- Name formation: Vegetable fibers, Zoological name: Animal fibers, Chemical name: Man made fiber.
- Utility of fibers: Major textile fibers, Minor textile fibers.
- Thermoplasticity of fibers: Thermoplastic fiber, Non-thermoplastic fiber.
- Ability to moisture absorbency: Hydrophilic fibers, hydrophobic fibers.
In sum, different methods apply to process textile fibers. When all textile fibers contain their own characteristics. Identically, we can identify the fiber type by different testing procedures. Also, we should know the physical and chemical properties of different fibers.
Above all, natural and synthetic fibers have lots of differences that assist to identify them.