Woven cloth structure is varied on various fundamental factors. Here, I have mentioned some fundamental factors which greatly effects on the structure of the woven fabric. They are as follows:
- Yarn Types: The appearance of the woven fabric is greatly depends on the yarn types which are used for producing that’s cloth. We know, yarns are natural and synthetic this two types. A fabric could be weaved by single types of yarn or by the combination of these two types of yarn. This is the producer’s choice. A producers always looks on the demand of the market and he tries to fulfill that’s demand by manufacture of that’s products. So, same structured cloths appearance could be vary on the yarn types.
- Count Of Yarn: Count of yarn shows the fineness of the yarn. The count of yarn has a great impact on the fabric structure. Before production, the count of the yarns is determined by the designer. The woven cloth structure varies on the count or relative thickness of the yarn used as warp or weft. Generally, warp count is less than weft count. So, selection of warp and weft count effects on the woven fabric structure.
- Number Of Ends and Picks: The woven cloth structure is varied on the relative setting or the numbers of ends and picks, which are placed side by side in a given width and the length of cloth. It is determined that EPI and PPI effect on the weight of the fabric as well as comfortness also effects by the number of ends and picks.
- Interlacing System: The variation of woven fabric structure also depends on the order of interlacement of ends and picks. We know that, plain, twill or satin design is not same and the interlacement depends on the design of the fabric.
- Finishing: The appearance of the woven fabric greatly depends on the finishing operation. Various types of finishing effects are done on the woven fabric. By finishing modifications are done on the fabric. Some fabrics become smooth, some are hard in feel, some are water proof, some are fire proof, some are light in weight or heavy and many more effect is done by finishing. Various types of finishing machineries are used for doing this job.
So, there are lots of fundamental factors behind the variation of woven fabric structure.
Weave or design is the main part of fabric production. The fabric weave or design is the manner in which the warp and weft yarns are interlaced with one to another to produce a fabric. For doing this job a drawing paper is needed where the fabric design is represented. The pattern or repeat is the smallest unit of the weave which when repeated will produce the design required in the fabric.
This design is determined the fabric types. Depending on the weave or design, fabric is varied to one to another. Each of the design has its own characteristics and that is the principle of that’s fabric.
Classification Of Weave Or Fabric Design: There are a lots of designed fabric is produced, they are classified as their design. Weave patterns can create varying degrees of durability in fabrics, adding to their usefulness and also to their appearance. In a simple weave construction, consisting of the weft going under one warp and over the next. Two harnesses are needed for doing this design. More than two harness are required for advanced weaves and as many as forty for figured weaves. The amount of harness depends on the fabric design.
The three basic weaves in common use for majority of fabrics. They are as-
Plain Weave: The plain weave repeats on 2 warps x 2 wefts. The plain fabrics comprise a high percentage of the total production of woven fabrics and it can be produced on a loom with two harnesses. It has the highest number of interlacing as compared with other weaves and therefore, it produces the finest fabrics.
Twill Weave: Twill weave is the second major fabric design. A twill weave is denoted by using number above and below a line. Various types of complex design are done by these methods. More than two harness is needed for produce a twill design fabrics.
Satin Weave with some variations.
I will write deeply about this three basic weave in the next blog.
Important construction is also obtained from the following weave:
- Pile Weave
- Double Cloth Weave
- Gauze Weave
- Swivel Weave
- Lappet Weave
- Double weave
- Jacquard Weave
So, there are lots of weave or design of woven fabric.
Woven structure is drawn on a design paper for representing the fabric construction. Before, bulk production it is essential to determine the fabric structure by determining it by analyzing ends and picks of the sample. This is generally done by the fabric lab section. The quality control department analyzes the fabric sample and draws a fabric structure and sends it to the production floor. After getting the fabric design production officer sets the loom parameter as the design. After that, we will get a woven fabric by weaving.
Methods of Fabric Representation on a Design Paper: Design paper is required to represent the woven structure. The method of indicating the weave on design paper is as follows:
- The spaces between the lines represent the yarns.
- The ends are in the vertical and the picks are in the horizontal direction.
- Each square represents the crossing of an end and pick.
- There are two and only two possible of each crossing; either the end passes over the picks or the picks passes over the end.
- A mark in a particular square indicates that the end is over the picks at the corresponding place in the fabric.
- A blank square indicates that the picks are over the end.
- Only one repeat should be shown on Design Paper.
So, by the above methods, we can represent fabric structure on a design paper. When you will learn to design a woven fabric you will find lots of interest in this job. So, take a woven fabric sample and try to find the design and draw the design on the design paper. Let me know the experience of this job.