Polyester is a very important manmade fiber. When it produces with a long-chain synthetic polymer with ester. Chiefly, polyester is produced by the melt spinning process. Additionally, it is the most commonly used synthetic fiber among other synthetic fibers. In the first place, DuPont introduced its Dacron polyester brand in 1951, but the material itself was patented earlier in 1941. All over, the use of polyester fabrics increases day by day. Polyester has some physical and chemical properties in similar fashion which are important to know.
Figure: Polyester Fiber
Physical Properties of Polyester Fiber:
The polyester fiber has good elasticity, shape retention, wrinkle resistance, an excellent wash and wear performance as well as durability in its physical properties. As a result, in all kinds of apparel fabrics the use of polyester fiber increases. At the same time, polyester fiber is poor in moisture absorption, its clothing makes the wearer feel hot and sticky it also produces static electricity easily which reflects in clothing absorbing dust and clinging to the body, which in fact, has poor comfort. Moreover, polyester has an excellent performance in the dyeing process.
Like cotton or other textile fiber, furthermore, polyester fiber consists of some important physical properties. The following are the important physical properties of polyester. They are-
- Tenacity: 5 – 7 gm/den
- Elongation at break: 15 – 30%
- Elastic modulus: 90
- Elasticity: Good
- Moisture Regain (MR%): 0.40%
- Specific Gravity: 1.38
- Melting point: 2500C
- Volumetric Swelling: None
- Ability to protest friction: Excellent
- Color: White
- Light reflection ability: Good
- Lusture: Bright
Chemical Properties of Polyester Fiber:
The following are the various types of chemical properties of polyester fiber. They are:
- Acids: Good resistance to acids in cold condition. But polyester degrades by H2SO4 at high temperature.
- Basic: Good resistance to basic in cold condition but Strong NaOH dissolves polyester in boiling.
- Effect of bleaching: Polyester does not affected by bleaching process.
- Organic solvent: Organic solvent does not affect on polyester fiber.
- Protection ability against mildew: Good
- Protection ability against insects: Good
- Dyes: Polyester could be dye with disperse, azoic color and some pigments.
- Solvents of polyester: Following are the solvents of polyester:
- Chlorinated hydrocarbon.
- Phenol (in hot condition)
So, during the processing of polyester, we have to consider its physical and chemical properties. The fiber is manufactured in different shapes and sizes for use in specific purposes. Last not least, In a polyester manufacturing unit, the management should follow all compliances issues regarding workplace safety.