Sizing is called the heart of weaving. The materials which are used for sizing are called size ingredients. A gelatinous film-forming substance in solution or dispersion applied normally used for warp yarn but sometimes used for weft yarn before weaving is called size.
Size Ingredients and Their Functions:
Different types of size ingredients are used for sizing. The following are the main size ingredients for sizing. They are-
Generally, the starch of maize, corn, rice, potato, and CMC, PVC are adhesive types. When tamarind is used as adhesive on jute yarn. Moreover, the adhesive is in granule form that mixes with water and is heated to form a paste which ultimately becomes viscose fluid. The following are the functions of adhesive. They are-
- Firstly, adhesive use to increase strength.
- Secondly, it use to impart adhesion making the yarn less hairy.
- Thirdly, to increase abrasion resistance.
- After that, adhesive increase smoothness.
- Then, it increase elasticity a stiffness.
- Lastly, it use to reduce extensibility.
There are different types of lubricating agents such as Japan wax, Tallow, Mineral waxes, Vegetable waxes, Animal fats, Mineral oils, and Vegetables. The following is the functions of lubricants or softener. They are-
- Firstly, softener makes the yarn soft and slippery.
- Secondly, it reduces stiffness.
- After that, it increases yarn smoothness.
- Finally, lubricants use to increases elasticity.
Antiseptic or Anti Mildew Agent:
There are different antiseptic agents such as Salicylic acid, Carbolic acid, Zinc chloride, Phenol. The following are the functions of antiseptic or anti-mildew agents. They are-
- Firstly, it prevents mildew formation.
- Secondly, it uses to preserve size materials for a long time.
- It also helps to store the yarn for a long time.
- Lastly, to protect yarn from bacteria or fungus.
Deliquescent or Hygroscopic Agent:
There are various types of deliquescent or hygroscopic agents such as Glycerin, Calcium chloride. In fact, the deliquescent agent is those substances that absorb moisture from the air. The following are the functions of deliquescent or hygroscopic agents. They are-
- Firstly, it prevents excess drying of yarn.
- Secondly, it helps to absorb moisture from air.
- Lastly, to prevent the brittleness of size.
Basically, China clay, Sodium phosphate is a weighting agent. These are used especially for those fabric or yarn that is to be solid or grey state. The following are the functions of weighting agents. They are-
- It increases the weight of yarn.
- To impart fullness and fell to the fabric.
Anti Foaming Agent:
There are different types of anti-foaming agents such as Pyridine, Benzene. The following are the functions of anti-foaming agents. They are-
Function: To prevent foam formation is the main function of the anti-foaming agent.
Blue is used as a tinting agent.
Function: Tinting agent used to increase luster or brightness.
There are various types of wetting agents such as Sulphanol A, soap, avirol, magnesium chloride. Consequently, the drawback of these substances is their high foaming ability and the foam is very stable. The following are the functions of wetting agents. They are-
- Firstly, it increases size exhaust.
- After that, it use to obtain a uniform distribution of sizing solution on yarn surface.
- Lastly, it helps to wet yarn instantly.
So, when we will choose size ingredients for sizing we should remember the functions of size ingredients. Various dyes and chemicals manufacturing companies produce size ingredients, choose your favorite one from there.