Linen fiber is collected from the flax fiber. It is a natural, cellulosic, bast and multi cellular fiber. At first it is used in the industry among all of the vegetable fiber. The fabric and yarn which is collected from the flax plant is called linen.
Chemical Composition of Flax Fiber: Every fiber has a chemical composition and it is important to know before its processing. Linen fiber is a cellulosic fiber and cellulose is the principle element of linen. Followings are the chemical composition of linen fiber.
Cellulose : 92%
Hemi-Cellulose : 2%
Lignin : 4%
Others : 2%
This is calculated in 100%.
The fabric which is produced from the linen fiber that is comfortable to wear. But it is heavy for this reason the fabric which is made from the linen fiber that is also heavy. Anyhow, day by day the uses of linen fiber increase rapidly.
Linen is a cellulosic textile fiber. It is collected from the flax plant. It is a natural fiber and it is more valuable than the cotton fiber. It is a soft and cool fiber and it is light in weight for this reason it is comfortable to wear. Its strength is more than cotton fiber and its value is about 2 or 3 times than the cotton fiber. Linen fiber occupied second position after Rame in regards of strength. The fabric which is produced by the linen fiber it is attractive and fashionable. To know about a fiber it is required to know about the physical and chemical properties of the fiber. For this reason, I like to present the physical and chemical properties of the linen fiber.
Physical Properties of Linen: Physical properties of linen fibers are given below:
- Color: The color of linen fiber is yellowish to grey.
- Length: 18 to 30 inch in length.
- Tensile Strength: Linen is a strong fiber. It has a tenacity of 5.5 to 6.5 gm/den. The strength is greater than cotton fiber.
- Elongation at break: Linen does not stress easily. It has an elongation at break of 2.7 to 3.5 %.
- Elastic Recovery: Linen fiber has not enough elastic recovery properties like cotton fiber.
- Specific Gravity: Specific gravity of linen fiber is 1.50.
- Moisture Regain (MR %): Standard moisture regain is 10 to 12%.
- Effect of Heat: Linen has an excellent resistance to degradation by heat. It is less affected than cotton fiber by the heat.
- Effect of Sun Light: Linen fiber is not affected by the sun light as others fiber. It has enough ability to protect sun light.
- Resiliency: Very poor.
- Lusture: It is brighter than cotton fiber and it is slightly silky.
Chemical Properties of Linen: Linen is a natural cellulosic fiber and it has some chemical properties. Chemical properties of the linen fiber are given below:
- Effect of Acids: Linen fiber is damaged by highly densified acids but low dense acids does not affect if it is wash instantly after application of acids.
- Effects of Alkalis: Linen has an excellent resistance to alkalis. It does not affected by the strong alkalis.
- Effects of Bleaching Agents: Cool chlorine and hypo-chlorine bleaching agent does not affect the linen fiber properties.
- Effect of Organic Solvent: Linen fiber has high resistance to normal cleaning solvents.
- Effects of Insects: Linen fiber does not attacked by moth-grubs or beetles.
- Effect of Micro Organism: Linen fiber is attacked by fungi and bacteria. Mildews will feed on linen fabric, rotting and weakling the materials. Mildews and bacteria will flourish on linen under hot and humid condition. They can be protected by impregnation with certain types of chemicals. Copper Nepthenate is one of the chemical.
- Dyes: It is not suitable to dye. But it can be dye by direct and vat dyes.
Linen fiber is an oldest fiber and it is use to make different types of fabrics which is used in various types of decorative purpose.
Silk is a natural textile fiber and it is collected from the insects named silkworm. The silk warm is the caterpillar of a small off white moth belonging to the species Bombyx mori. The fiber which is collected from the insects that is required to treat before fabric production. Different types of impurities are contained in the raw silk.
Chemical Composition of Silk Fiber: Various types of chemical components are composed in the chemical structure of the silk fiber. Here, I have presented a chemical composition of raw silk fiber.
Fibroin : 75%
Ash of Silk Fibroin : 0.5%
Sericin : 22.5%
Fat and Wax : 1.5%
Mineral Salt : 0.5%
This composition is calculated in 100 percent.
It is important to know that, the fibroin is composed of 16 various amino acids. Raw Silk is composed of two filaments which are produced by the fibroin. These two filaments are adjusted by the gum which is known as sericin and different types of mineral salt, fat and wax also involved with it.
This raw silk is treated for remove the gummy materials and various types of impurities from the silk by scouring process. Then the silk fiber is collected and supplied for producing silk fabric by weaving process.