Functions Of Chemical In Wet Processing

Chemicals and Auxiliaries

We know that dyes and chemicals are the main factors in producing color in yarn or fabric. Different types of chemicals are used during dyeing. Generally, various chemicals are used in different stages of dyeing processing. In fact, every chemical has its own characteristics, and they are used in different stages of wet processing.

Functions of Chemicals in Wet Processing with a List:

The following is a list of Chemical auxiliaries used in the wet processing unit, along with their functions. They are-


Acid is used to control PH. It also decreases the pH of the solution. If PH 1-7 then it is called Acidic solution.


Basic is used to increase the pH of the solution. When the pH range of basic is 7-14. This is also used as a scouring agent.

Peroxide Killer:

This chemical is used to kill peroxide which is remaining in the material because Peroxide is harmful to the material. Therefore, a test is carried out to measure the amount of peroxide present in the solution.

Bleaching Agent:

Bleaching is carried out before dyeing or printing operation. Better absorption of dyes depends on better bleaching. An absorbency test is carried out to test the bleaching performance. Absorbency time should lie under 5 seconds. It is used for removing natural color from the grey yarn or fabric.

Salt or Electrolyte:

Salt is used as an electrolyte. Therefore, it increases the exhaustion rate of the dyeing process. Different types of salt are used for a different shades. The amount of salt used depends on the shade % of the material.

Scouring Agent:

The scouring agent is used to remove fat, waxes, fragments of cotton, etc.

Antifoaming Agent:

Foam is formed during the bleaching and dyeing process. The anti-foaming agent is used to resist foam formation. If foam forms it reduces the dyeing uptake %.

Sequestering Agent:

This agent is used to remove the hardness of the water.

Dispersing Agent:

This agent is used to disperse dyes. We know, disperse dye is insoluble in water, and dye is present in dispersed form. By applying this agent dye molecule breaks and become soluble in the solution.

Neutralization Agent:

This agent is used to neutralize the PH of the solution.

Wash or Soaping Agent:

A soaping agent is used for washing. It needs to wash dyed material to remove unfix dye from the material. Dark material needs a double wash. But light shade materials need a single wash, sometimes no wash is carried out for light shade. It also increases the reflecting properties.

Softening Agent:

This agent is used to increase the softness of the material. This agent is used as finishing material.

Fixing Agent:

This agent is used for fixing dyestuff and also removing the unfixed dye.

Brightening Agent:

This agent is used to increase the brightness of the material. OBA increases the reflecting property of the material. The standard reflecting value is 85%. But sometimes it is possible to increase it up to 95%. But it is risky because it needs a high kier boiler temperature, which reduces the strength of the material.

So, we should use the chemical auxiliaries according to their scope of use. Hence, different textile chemical and auxiliaries manufacturers are trying their best to provide the best quality chemicals for textile wet processing in the textile industry.

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