Biological Treatment of Wastewater In Textile Industry

Biological Treatment Process

Effluent treatment plant are used to treat waste water that comes from different manufacturing industries, where different types of chemicals and dyes are used to treat the materials. After treatment, waste water is directly discharged into the environment. This waste water is harmful to the environment. The purpose of biological treatment of wastewater is to protect the environment from the harmful effects of waste water. An effluent treatment plant is used where waste water is treated and is not harmful to the environment.

In the textile industry, different types of dyes and chemicals are used in weaving, dyeing and garment washing plants. This waste water is treated at an effluent treatment plant. Here I will give an idea of the biological waste water treatment plant. In the dyeing process, waste water is discharged from scouring, bleaching, washing, and dyeing. These dyes and chemicals are supplied to the biological water treatment plant for purification.

In Bangladesh, a lot of dyeing and textile industries have been established for processing textile products. To protect the environment from the harmful effects of the waste water, the Department of Environment, Government of Bangladesh, fixed the following parameters for the waste water that will be discharged into the environment after treatment:

  • PH : 6–9
  • BOD: 50 mg/L
  • COD: 200 mg/L
  • Suspended solids: 150 mg/L
  • Color: light brownish.

The waste water that is produced in the dyeing industry may have the following characteristics:

  • PH: 9-11
  • BOD: 300 mg/l
  • COD: 200 mg/l
  • Suspended solids: 200 mg/l
  • Color: Dark

Flow Chart of Biological Treatment of Wastewater In Textile Industry

After treatment, the characteristics of the waste water changed as follows:

  • PH: 7-8
  • BOD: 30 mg/L
  • COD: 60 mg / L
  • Suspended solid: 30mg/L
  • Color: Light brownish
Biological Treatment of Wastewater

Process flow chart of a biological wastewater treatment plant:

Effluent comes into collection tank

Equalization tank (Cooling & Mixing)

Primary clarifier tank (Neutralization)

Aeration tank

Secondary clarifier (Tank 1 & 2)

Sludge return to aeration tank

Thickness filter

Fish pond


So, that’s all about the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. If you have a better idea, let me know about it.

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  • Kazy Mohammad Iqbal Hossain

    Dear Textile Technologist/ Writer of this main article,
    I am so sorry to say that you do not have any basic idea regarding waste water chemistry. In 3rd Paragraph of your articles, mentioned the waste water characteristics as like BOD- 300 mg/l and COD-200 mg/l. Do you exactly know what is BOD and what is COD?

    The hydrocarbon(e.g. starch) which can be oxidized by micro-organism through their metabolic process can be indirectly measured by BOD. The relationship is if 23 gm oxygen is required to oxidized 12 gm carbon, so if you know the oxygen lost from the water, you can calculate the amount of carbon present in the waste water. Usually BOD is measured for 5 days period or in some cases for 3 days period or some time the ultimate BOD is also calculate.
    For your information, the hydro carbon which can be metabolized by bacteria can also be oxidized by Chemical Oxidizer (such as K2Cr2O7, KMn04, H202, 03, etc.). It is also for your information, a good oxidizing agent like dichromate can oxidize 100% of organic carbon but bacteria can not metabolized all hydrocarbon (especially which is known as persistant organic matter, or long chain complex organic matter).
    So, the information what I want to give you that COD value can not be less than the BOD value it can be maximum equal for very easily biodegradable compound like cooked rice. But for textile, COD will be at least 1.5 times higher than BOD. Also note, BOD is a term which the ETP designer use rather they use COD and break down it in to two parts. The term which we use at BOD is mentioned as bCOD by them. The formula is

    COD= bCOD+ nbCOD where bCOD= biodegradable organic matter and nb COD non biodegradable organic matter.
    So, bCOD= COD-nbCOD

    I will humbly request you, not to publish any materials in public domain about which you do not have very clear understanding. You are welcome for any quarries.

    Please take my sincere apology for this, my intention was not any how to personally attack you.

    With Kind Regards,
    Kazy Mohammad Iqbal Hossain
    Senior Environmental Chemist-Asian Subcontinent
    C&A Sourcing International Ltd.
    Bangladesh Hub

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