Jute is a bast fiber. Additionally, the fibers that come from the inner bark of the plants are known as bast fiber. Basically, different types of natural and man-made fibers are available in the world. So it is essential to know the properties of fibers because without knowing them, it is not possible to separate one fiber from others. When every fiber has its own physical and chemical properties.
Physical and Chemical Properties of Jute Fiber
Jute is a cellulosic fiber indeed it has some physical properties. The following are the physical properties of jute. They are-
- Ultimate length: 1.5 – 4 mm
- Ultimate diameter: 0.015 – 0.020 mm
- No. of ultimate in X-section: 6 – 10
- Fibers length: 5 – 12 ft.
- Color: White, Off White, Yellow, Brown, Grey, Golden.
- Strength (Tenacity): 3 – 4 gm/den
- Elongation: 1.7% at the break
- Specific Gravity: 1.5
- Moisture Regain(MR%): 13.75%
- Resiliency: Bad
- Dimensional Stability: Good
- Abrasion Resistance: Average
- Effect of Light and Heat: Average
- Effect of Micro Organism: Good(better than Cotton)
Jute fiber contains cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and other components in its chemical composition, The following are the chemical properties of jute fiber. They are-
- Effect of Acids: Jute fibber easily damaged by hot dilute Acids and concentrated cold Acid consequently.
- Effect of Alkalis: Fibers are damaged by strong alkali. As a result, fibers losses weight when it heated with caustic soda.
- Effect of Bleaches: It has strong resistant to bleaching agents (Bleaching agent,such as H2O2, NaOcl, Naclo2, Na2O2, CH3COOH, KMnO4, etc.)
- Effect of Light: Color changes slightly in presence of sun light. It happens due to presence of lignin in fiber.
- Effect of Mildew: Prevention ability jute fiber is better than Cotton and Linen.
- Dyeing ability: Easy to dyeing. Also, basic dye uses to color jute fiber.
Basically, Jute fibers are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. It is harder than cotton or other fibers. Because of the presence of lignin in its structure. When the emulsion uses to make it soft for spinning. It is weaker than other fibers. Its extension ability is less than other natural fibers.
The physical and chemical properties of jute can vary depending on the region of cultivation. In fact, atmospheric conditions and temperature have a great effect on the properties of jute. The properties of seeds also have an effect on the properties of jute. However, recently different types of changes are brought in the properties of jute seeds. Recently genome sequence of jute is invented by a Scientist in Bangladesh. So in the future, we will get such types of jute which is better than the present one.