Anionic softener is not so used as cationic softener. Anionic softener is applied on cellulosic and its blend textile materials.
Properties of Anionic Softener: Properties of anionic softener are given below.
- Anionic softener is applied on cellulose and its blend.
- Anionic softener is not permanent and not fast to repeated washing.
- It is not stable in hard water.
- It has not enough affinity to cellulose.
- Examples of anionic softener is oil, fat, wax, soap, sulphated and sulphonated oils and sulphated fatty alcohol.
Methods of Application: Anionic softener is applied on the fabric by the following way.
- Fad – dry – calender
- Exhaust Method (Jigger / Winch)
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Anionic Softener: The advantages and disadvantages of anionic softener are given below.
Advantages Of Anionic Softener:
- Anionic softener is compatible with direct dyes, optical brightener, starch, resigns etc.
Disadvantages Of Anionic Softener:
- Anionic softener gives temporary finish on the textile materials.
- It gives poor softness.
- Because of less substantively, wastages become high.
Uses of Anionic Softener: Anionic softener is used in the following cases.
- Anionic softener is used to modify the softness of resin treated fabrics.
- Anionic softener is used as the lubricant for fiber during carding and drawing in spinning.
Anionic softener has lots of limitation for this reason its application area is smaller than cationic softener or nonionic softener.
Cationic softeners are one of the important softening agents used for finishing process. It is widely used for softening the cellulosic materials.
Properties of Cationic Softener: The properties of cationic softeners are given below. They are-
- Cationic softeners are widely used on cellulose materials.
- It has enough affinity and substantively towards cellulosic fibers.
- Its PH is lies between 5 – 6.
- Cationic agents become unstable to alkaline media.
- It is soluble in water.
- Cationic salts present in hard water react with softener forming precipitation.
- Chemically cationic softener is sap amines, amido amines, imidazoline and quaternary ammonium compounds.
Preparation of Softener Solution: Softener solution is made by following way.
- At first, take required softener.
- Then, take required amount of water at 700C.
- After that, softener and water is mixed by stirring.
- Finally, acetic acid is added in the solution.
Methods of Application: Softener is applied on fabric by the following two ways.
- Pad-dry-calender: In this method, 20 -25 g/l softener are taken where PH level is 4 – 5. Then, fabric is impregnate in to water and the pickup % is 70 – 80. Then fabric is dried at 1200 – 1400C for 2 – 3 minutes.
- Exhaust Methods (Jigger or winch): In this method, following parameters are maintained. It is a sample recipe.
Americos AC 1000 : 1 – 2% (owf)
Material: Liquo : 1: 10
Temperature : 450 – 500 C
PH : 4 – 5
Time : 20 – 30 minutes
Advantages and Disadvantages of Cationic Softener: Advantages and disadvantages of cationic softener are given below.
Advantages of Cationic Softener:
- Cationic softener increases lubricity of yarn.
- It minimizes the loss in physical property on resin finished goods.
- Permanent finish is done by cationic softener.
- It can be used as antistatic agent for loose fiber.
Disadvantages of Cationic Softener:
- Cationic softener gets precipitated when with anionic compounds.
- It is not compatible with other additives.
So, when you will choose cationic softener, you should remind the properties of cationic softener as well as the advantages and disadvantages of cationic softener.
Softening agents are one of the finishing agents which give softness, better handle, drape, cutting and sewing qualities to fabric. Softening agents are applying on fiber, yarn, woven or knitted fabrics during dyeing process. Softening agents are applying on the materials at the last stage of dyeing process. Most of the time softening agents applies on fabric by softener machine. Various techniques are applied for softening agent application.
Requirements of Softening Agents: Following requirements should be fulfilled by a softening agent. They are-
- Physical properties of the fabric should not be affected by softening agent.
- Softening agents should be compatible with other finishing chemicals.
- It should not affect the fastness properties of dyed and printed materials.
- It should not create any yellowish problem to the fabric.
- Softening agent should not affect the depth and tone of dyed or printed fabrics.
- Softening agent should not give irritation to human skin.
- Softening agent should have strong properties on own.
Types of Softening Agents: Softening agents are classified according to their chemical properties. Softening agents are classified as the following way.
- Cationic Softener
- Anionic Softener
- Nonionic Softener
- Reactive Softener
- Amphoteric Softener
- Silicon Softener
Above softening agents are used for softening of the fabrics. The application of the softening agents depends on the types of textile materials. All of the softening agents are not suitable for all types of textile materials. Faulty selection of softener agents could be harmful for the dyed or printed fabrics.
So, we should have deep knowledge about the various types of softening agents.