There are various types of fabric is available in the market, they are woven, knitted or non-woven fabric. Fabrics are differing from one to another depending on the manufacturing techniques. Fabrics are differing depending on the fabric design. Some fabrics are heavy and some are light in weight. So, it is important to determine the fabric weight.
Types of Fabric Weight Measurement System and Their Application: Fabric weight can be measured by the following three ways. They are as follow:
By using formula: Fabric weight can be measured by the formula. Where fabric length, weight and width is known. In this measuring system it is not required to cut the fabric. But it needs to measure the whole fabric. Two formula is given below:
Oz/yd2 = 576 M/ (LW)
Oz/yd = 16 M/L
M= Mass of the fabric roll in Ibs
L= Length in yards
W= Width in inch
By GSM cutter: GSM means Grams per Square Meter. It is most used methods for measuring fabric weight. In these methods, GSM cutter, cutting pad and electric balance is used. It is a quick and authentic method. For measure this above instruments and small amount of fabric sample is required.
By using fabric consumption: Another process is done by using fabric consumption. By these methods, fabric weight can be measurement without any measurement and instruments. Here, fabric consumption is used for calculating the fabric weight directly. The main problem is that, warp and weft crimps are required which varies widely and only an approximate value is used which may not provide exact GSM of the ultimate fabric.
Among the above three methods, GSM cutter system is more comfortable and accurate methods for measure the fabric weight. These methods are used for test the fabric weight in various types of quality testing lab.
Fabric weight measurement is required in weaving, knitting, dyeing and finishing unit of a textile mill. It is an off line quality assurance system.
In textile industry; quality control department is responsible to carried out various types of quality test. Density test is one of them. Density test is important for fabric manufacturing.
Density of a textile fiber is important to know. Density is measured by the following steps. Density gradient is prepared as the following:
- Clamp the density gradient glass in a firm vertical stand.
- Pour into the tube 25 ml of tetrachloroetylene.
- Now prepare mixture of xylene and tetrachloroetylene in descending order of percent tetrachloroetylene: 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 20/80 and 10/90.
- Pour 25 ml of each in order carefully down the side of the gradient tube.
- Finally put 25 ml of xylene on top.
- Take short fragments of dyed reference fibers and tie in a knot snipping off loose ends.
- Boil for 2 minutes in xylene solvent to remove moisture and air.
- After about a half hour they should come to the rest in a level representing their density.
- Calibrate glass sphere may be used to determine the actual density at various levels.
- Prepare the unknown fiber in like manner, place in the gradient column and note at what level it floats.
So, that’s all about the density test. We can test the various types of fibers density as the above procedure.
Warping machine is a simplest machine. Its have different components and they have own functions which is required to know for better operation. Warping machine components are mainly divided into two types; they are
Now I like to give a short description about creel and head stock parts and their functions.
Components of creel and their functions:
- Yarn cleaner: Different yarn faults like slubs, neps are removed.
- Stop device: This device help to stop the machine when yarns are broken.
- Indicator: To indicate yarn breakage in the package.
- Tensioner: To keep the yarn in a uniform tension.
- Yarn guide: It helps the yarn to pass in a specific way.
- Flanged bobbin or cone or cheese base and stand: To hold the yarn package.
- Blower or suction fan: To remove durt and dust from the yarn.
Components of head stock and their functions:
- Adjustable or Variable V-Wrath: Warp beam weigth is controlled by this device.
- Measuring and Marking device: It measures the amount of warp yarn on the beam and marks the yarn for definite use.
- Yarn speed controlling device: To control the speed of yarn provided with a meter.
- Pneumatic or Hydraulic pressure unit: Too press the warp beam with the surface contact of driving drum.
- Break assembly: It stops the machine instantly in case of yarn breakage.
- Driving drum: Driving drum control the beams and placed in contact.
- Stop motion: When required length is wound on beam then it used to stop the machine.
- Building device: To control space between driving drum and beam while dyeing or sizing.
- Beam bracket: It used to give support and hold the beam.
- Lease rod: It is used for separation of individually.
It is mentioned that creel is divided into single end and multiple package creel. Magazine creel and travelling creel is called multiple package creels. On the othehand, head stock is divided into fixed head stock and travelling head stock.
So, there are lots of component of warping machine. When one of the components fallen in faults then provide one which have enough quality to give better service.