The fibers that come from the inner bark of the plants are known as bast fiber. Jute is a bast fiber. Different types of natural and man-made fibers are available in the world. So it is essential to know the properties of fibers. Without that it is not possible to separate one fiber from others. Every fiber has its own properties.
Jute is a natural fiber. It has some physical and chemical properties. Following properties are the properties of jute.
- Ultimate length: 1.5 – 4 mm
- Ultimate diameter: 0.015 – 0.020 mm
- No. of ultimate in X-section: 6 – 10
- Fibers length: 5 – 12 ft.
- Color: White, Off White, Yellow, Brown, Grey, Golden
- Strength (Tenacity): 3 – 4 gm/den
- Elongation: 1.7% at the break
- Specific Gravity: 1.5
- Moisture Regain(MR%): 13.75%
- Resiliency: Bad
- Dimensional Stability: Good
- Abrasion Resistance: Average
- Effect of Light and Heat: Average
- Effect of Micro Organism: Good(better than Cotton)
- Effect of Acids: Easily damaged by hot dilute Acids and conc. cold Acid.
- Effect of Alkalis: Fibers are damaged by strong alkali. Fibers losses weight when it heated with caustic soda.
- Effect of Bleaches: Resistant to bleaching agents (Bleaching agent, H2O2, NaOcl, Naclo2, Na2O2, CH3COOH, KMnO4, etc.)
- Effect of Light: Color changes slightly in presence of sun light. It happens due to presence of lignin in fiber.
- Effect of Mildew: Prevention ability is better than Cotton and Linen.
- Dyeing ability: Easy to dyeing. Basic dye is used to color jute fiber.
Mainly Jute fibers are composed of cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin. It is harder than cotton or other fibers. It is for the presence of lignin in its structure. Emulsion is used to make it soft for spinning. It is weaker than other fibers. Its extension ability is less than other natural fibers.
The physical and chemical properties of jute can vary depending on region. Atmospheric condition and temperature has a great effect on the properties of jute. Properties of seeds also have effect on the properties of jute. Recently different types of changes are brought in the properties of jute seeds. Recently genome sequence of jute is invented by a Scientist. So in future we will get such types of jute which is better than present one.
Different types of machineries and chemicals are used to evaluate properties of jute. So, now it will be easy to find out jute from others fiber.
All of we know that, this world becomes unsafe and unhealthy for different types of problems. But who is responsible for that, simple answer is that we (mankind). Day by day we are creating this worst situation. This earth becomes hot for our ignorance. In this modern time we use such kind of things which is not environment friendly. We are increasing the use of synthetic products which create different dangerous and harmful diseases to human body. We are not aware about our environment.
Natural products are safe for environment. In this view we can think about jute which is natural fiber. The product which is made from jute that is safe for us. Now I want to say why we use Jute products:
- Jute fiber is a natural fiber.
- Jute and its products are bio-degradable.
- Jute product is eco friendly.
- Jute products can be reuse.
- It does not harmful for environment.
- Jute product is easy to handle.
- Jute product can be use in heavy purpose.
- Decorative product can be made from jute.
- With modern technology jute can be use with cotton to produce decorative wear.
Jute fiber is the raw materials. Jute fibers use to produce different types of product which is available in local and international market. Different jute goods manufacturers are trying to improve the quality of jute goods. Following jute goods are common in market.
- C.B.C (Carpet Backing Cloth): This is one of the most valuable goods of jute. It uses as the carpet backing cloth. High graded raw jute use to produce it.
- Hessian Cloth: Hessian cloth is a plain weave cloth produced from single warp and weft of jute. It uses for making bags or as a cover to pack the materials. It uses in agro based industries for packing rice, wool, tobacco, coffee, potatoes, tea, onion, wheat and many more. Also it can find in roll form which use to cover different things.
- Hessian Bags: Hessian jute bags are eco-friendly and bio-degradable. It uses in different types of packing. It is highly durable and eco friendly.
- Sacking Bags: Sacking bags are the main product. It uses to pack food grain, sugar, fertilizer, cement, etc. Generally it uses to pack heavy weight, ranges 50 to 100 kg. Different types of sacking bags are available named as A Twill, B Twill, B Nola, Hy.Cess, D.W, Flour, Cement Bags and others depending on buyer’s requirement.
- Twine yarn: It can be single or multiple fly. Also it can be in grey or dyed form. Winding is done in conical, cylindrical or cone less spools form or hanks form in order to buyer specifications. It is extensively used in cable industry, carpet industry and many more.
- Geo Jute: It is extensively used to protect soil from wash out. It is used in river bank or dam to protect its soil form wash out in rainy seasons. Day by day its demand increases because it is eco friendly.
- Sand Bags: It is made from 100% natural jute fiber and it is biodegradable. It is used to protect riverbank from erosion also used in military and variety of farm works.
- Others: Different handy craft is made from jute which has a market demand. Also it is available in rope form which is used to bind different things.
Jute goods can be produce in grey or dyed form. Also printed jute goods are available. Different types of jute goods are produce depending on buyer requirement.
If we use natural fiber instead of synthetic goods then day by day environment will improve. Not only this jute but also any types of natural fiber (Cotton, Hemp, Silk or others) product can be used.
Most important thing is that, if we use jute product it will effect in root level to upper level. Farmers who cultivate Jute they will inspire to cultivate more jute. Producers of jute goods will inspire. Jute and jute goods related business will spread out.
So, we should use natural products in our every day chores.
Jute fiber, one of the most common natural fibers. Natural fiber means it completely grows naturally. For this reason it is completely safe to use. It is eco friendly. Anyhow jute is a cellulosic fiber but the portion of cellulose in its composition is less than cotton fiber. Hemi cellulose and lignin also present in its composition. For the presence of lignin and cellulose jute fiber is harder than others fiber. The chemical composition of jute fiber is as bellow:
Cellulose : 64 to 65%
Hemi-Cellulose : 20 to 25%
Lignin : 10 to 15%
Fat & Wax : 0.3%
Water solution materials : 1.5%
Its root is harder than its body. It is difficult to produce yarn for its hardness. It makes soft by process before production. To remove this hardness emulsion is used. Then it becomes suitable for twisting. This emulsion is composed of J.B.O, Water and Emulsifier. The percentage by which emulsion is made that is given below:
Water : 75.0 %
Jute Batching Oil (J.B.O) : 24.5%
Emulsifier : 0.5%
This composition is not universal it can be changed by the technician. After applying emulsion on jute it keeps in pile for some days. This time period is depend on the grade of jute.
Jute fiber is use to produce twine yarn, bag, sack, hessian, sacking, cvc, carpet yarn, etc. This product has international market demand. For this reason different county produce it to fulfill this demand.
We know that jute is composed of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen in its chemical composition. It has no component which is harmful for the environment. For that it does not pollute environment. Other hand jute fiber and its products are biodegradable. It takes only three to five months to decompose with soil. For this jute fiber is called friend of environment.
So, all of my friends let take steps to use natural jute products and keep this world out of synthetic products.