In garments industry; a garments is made by assembling different parts of fabric by sewing. Different apparel accessories also sew in sewing section. After spreading of fabric, cutting operation is performed. This fabric cutting is done in cutting section. Incorrect cutting can make various garment faults.
Methods of cutting: Fabrics cutting is done by the following three ways:
- Completely manual method: This type of fabric cutting is not available in garments industry. But this type of cutting is performed for tailoring purpose, where single fabrics are cut. It is completely a manual method of fabric cutting. It needs more for cutting.
- Manually operated powered knife method: In this method cutting operation is done by using knife. Here knife is placed in the head of the cutting machine. It is the most used methods in apparel industry for cutting fabrics.
- Computerized methods: In modern age, the use of computerized methods become popular for perform the cutting operation. Here, all programs are loaded to the computer and it performs all the activities which are loaded.
Now, process flow chart of fabric cutting is given bellow:
Marker placing at the top
Numbering and checking
Input to sewing section
Fabric cutting section is very important for next sewing section. Cut fabrics are sorted according to the size of the fabrics. After sorting numbering is done and checking is performed 100% for avoid any types of mistakes. We know that dyed fabrics vary from one lot to another although they are dyed by same dyes. Also shade can be varying from layer to layer. So, during numbering extra care should take. Numbering is done for avoiding the shade variation of the fabric. After that parts are separates and make a bundle for sending it to the sewing section.
So, cutting section in charge has a great duty to do all of this according to the sequence, which is explained in above.
Needle is very common word in garments industry. different accessories are joined by needle. Needle is used for sewing operation. Two or multiple fabric parts are joined by stitching which is done by the help of needle. Sewing thread is passing through the hole of needle. I think that one of you have used needle for sew something. So, you must have curiosity to know the history of needle. Now I will describe the history of needle.
History of needle with its using age:
- Needle used for hand sewing since about 18000 B.C and made from Bone, Wood and Horn.
- Iron needles were introduced during the 15th century for hand sewing.
- In 1800, BALTHASAR KREMS of Germany was the first to use a needle with the eye near the point for sewing machine and he had developed it.
- The large scale production of sewing machine’s started about 1840.
- Today the steel needle is common used in sewing operation.
- Needles are made in straight or curved form.
Needle Size/Needle Numbering: The thickness of needle is expressed by a number that is called Needle Number or Needle Size (NN/NS). It is the most widely used system in the metric system (Nm). Needle lengths for each type of machine are standardized. Needle number is calculating by multiplying the blade diameter (mm) with 100. If we consider that, the blade diameter is 0.7 then
Needle Number = 0.7 x 100 = 70
The range of needle number is Nm 70 to Nm 200.
Functions of Needle: Needle has different functions. They are as follow:
- To form a passage in the material through which the needle thread can wholly or partially pass.
- To form a loop which can be picked up by the looper or hook mechanisms.
Needle Selection: Selection of needle depends on the following factors:
→The characteristics of the materials. Materials could be woven or knit. For woven fabric V-Point needle is use and for knit fabric Ball-Point needle is use.
→The size of the sewing thread.
→The stitch type.
→The seam type.
Needle is used for forming loop and holds the fabric parts together. Use of needle is depends on the thickness of materials. For use of faulty needle different fabric faults can be appear in fabric.
So, selection of needle should be correct. Needle number should be fixed for sewing specific fabric.