Garment or apparel is the second need of human being. It is very important to wear garment for fulfill the basic needs of a man or women. Complete garments reach to the customers hand by lots of hard work and continuous process. It is very essential to calculate the costing of complete products… All the cost which is responsible for making that’s products that’s responsible to fix the price of that’s products.
In garment manufacturing units, consumption of a garment is determined by how many fabrics and accessories and other materials are required for making that’s garment. Garment costing is determined by calculating the expenses for making that’s garment. Garment costing is generally calculated by the merchandiser who is responsible for that’s specific garment item.
Important Points for Garment Costing: Different points are considered for fixing garment costing. It is very important to calculate the costing for making a garment. The profit and loss both are depends on the costing of a garment. The progress of the company depends on the proper and accurate costing of the products. Different points are considered before start the production of products. Followings are the most common points for determine the costing of garment. They are-
- Yarn (natural/synthetic) cost.
- Process cost (spinning to garment).
- Process lost (spinning to garment).
- CMT (cutting, making and trimming).
- Shortage in process.
- Negotiation with the buyer.
- Commission percentage for middle man.
- Buyer specification for define products.
- Mode of shipment for export.
- FOB (Free On Board)
- CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight).
- OH cost (Over head).
- Quota for specific products.
So, there are lots of points which are important for garment costing. When one will try to calculate the costing of garment he or she should have clear knowledge about the process from spinning to readymade garment manufacturing.
Total Quality Management (TQM) is the methods to achieve productivity and process efficiency by identifying and eliminating problems. TQM is a philosophy which used to improve the whole business.
TQM improves process efficiency which brings many benefits to the organizations in terms of cost and time. TQM methods eliminate the repetitive work. It also eliminate waste cost and rejects products. It is useful for eliminating repairs and reworks. It reduces customer support cost and warranty cost. TQM improves the process efficiency which leads to improve profit per products or service. TQM is used for achieve the customer satisfaction which is useful for increasing the well known face of a company. It teach to do all the work in just time. TQM increases the efficiency and productivity which is helpful for increase the profit rate of an industry. If a company can maintain TQM methods, they will get success.
TQM is a system of continuous improvement which facilities success of a company over a year. It improves the quality of the product which is more important for a company or organization. TQM is a management methods used to know the exact problems, its cause and how to fix it in a fair way.
Benefits and Problems of TQM: TQM has some benefits and problems. They are as follows:
Benefits of TQM:
- TQM focus on the customer needs and relationship.
- By TQM it is possible to achieve quality in all aspects.
- TQM method analyzes all process to remove defects.
- TQM helps to find improvement on a continuous basis.
- It develops team approach to solve the problem.
- TQM helps to maintain effective procedures of communications.
- It improves market share.
- TQM is responsible for higher productivity.
Problems of TQM:
- TQM needs higher training and development cost.
- Higher commitment is required from the entire business.
- It needs bureaucracy and regular audits.
- During process, stress is put on process not on the products.
- Higher skill is required for maintain TQM
So, there are lots of benefits and problems of TQM. But it is helpful for the process.
5S is the modern methodology for arranging your daily work in a fair way. It teaches to arrange all the materials in a schedule way for comfort. It makes easy the searching methods. It helps to teach discipline. Discipline can help to the success in life.
Here, I have described about 5S in details in point. They are-
Sorting (Seiri): Sorting is done for choosing necessary items for storing. Sorting is done as follow:
- It needs to eliminate all unnecessary tools, parts, and instructions.
- By sorting man keeps only essential items and eliminate what is not required
- Sorting prioritizing things per requirements and keeping them in easily-accessible places.
- Everything else is stored or discarded.
Straightening or setting in order / stabilize (Seiton): After sorting, straightening is done for keeping things in right place. Straightening is done as follow:
- Straightening indicates that, there should be a place for everything and everything should be in its place.
- The place for each item should be clearly labelled or demarcated in a sound manner.
- Items should be arranged in a manner that promotes efficient work flow, with equipment used most often being the most easily accessible.
Shining or systematic cleaning (Seiso): Systematic cleaning is done for clean the unwanted things from the work place. Shining is done as follow:
- Shining is done to clean the workspace and all equipment, and keep it clean, tidy and organized.
- Shining is done at the end of each shift, clean the work area and be sure everything is restored to its place.
- Maintaining cleanliness should be part of the daily work – not an occasional activity initiated when things get too messy.
Standardizing (Seiketsu): There should be a standard for doing the work. Standardizing is done as follow:
- All work stations for a particular job should be identical.
- All employees doing the same job should be able to work in any station with the same tools that are in the same location in every station.
- Everyone should know exactly what his or her responsibilities are for adhering to the first 3 S’s.
Sustaining the discipline or self-discipline (Shitsuke): Sustaining is done for keep the manner for the long way.
- Sustaining is required for further continuity. 5S is a habit and is continually improved.
- Maintain and review standards.
- Maintain focus on this new way and do not allow a gradual decline back to the old ways.
- While thinking about the new way, also be thinking about yet better ways.
So, there are lots of ways for improving your every work day. Manager should follow the modern methods for keeping improvement in daily life. Success will be come in its own way. We should try for better.