There are various types of fabric is available in the market, they are woven, knitted or non-woven fabric. Fabrics are differing from one to another depending on the manufacturing techniques. Fabrics are differing depending on the fabric design. Some fabrics are heavy and some are light in weight. So, it is important to determine the fabric weight.
Types of Fabric Weight Measurement System and Their Application: Fabric weight can be measured by the following three ways. They are as follow:
By using formula: Fabric weight can be measured by the formula. Where fabric length, weight and width is known. In this measuring system it is not required to cut the fabric. But it needs to measure the whole fabric. Two formula is given below:
Oz/yd2 = 576 M/ (LW)
Oz/yd = 16 M/L
M= Mass of the fabric roll in Ibs
L= Length in yards
W= Width in inch
By GSM cutter: GSM means Grams per Square Meter. It is most used methods for measuring fabric weight. In these methods, GSM cutter, cutting pad and electric balance is used. It is a quick and authentic method. For measure this above instruments and small amount of fabric sample is required.
By using fabric consumption: Another process is done by using fabric consumption. By these methods, fabric weight can be measurement without any measurement and instruments. Here, fabric consumption is used for calculating the fabric weight directly. The main problem is that, warp and weft crimps are required which varies widely and only an approximate value is used which may not provide exact GSM of the ultimate fabric.
Among the above three methods, GSM cutter system is more comfortable and accurate methods for measure the fabric weight. These methods are used for test the fabric weight in various types of quality testing lab.
Fabric weight measurement is required in weaving, knitting, dyeing and finishing unit of a textile mill. It is an off line quality assurance system.
Textile Testing and Quality Control (TTQC) lab is responsible to ensure the quality of the products. In response to textile product evaluation TTQC lab plays an important role. Now days, man wants to get qualitative product from the producer. For this reason it is the duty of a producer to produce qualitative product.
In textile industry; quality is assured in different stage of production. From the raw materials to the finished goods, quality is assured by the quality control department. Quality is assured in fiber selection, yarn production, fabric manufacturing, wet processing and apparel manufacturing. Also, quality is checked for dyestuff and chemicals which is used in dyeing, printing and finishing. Most of the times, quality control department gives a quality pass certificate before export.
TTQC lab is also set up in educational institute, research institute for teach the quality evaluation system and research. It is also set in port to test the quality of the textile products. Some TTQC lab is set up for commercial purpose. Some quality standardizing group also set up TTQC lab for test the quality. In dyestuff market, TTQC lab is set up for ensure the quality of the dyes and chemicals.
Types of Textile Testing and Quality Control Lab for Quality Assurance: There are various types of TTQC lab. I have given some TTQC lab name list which is responsible for quality assurance. They are as follow:
- Textile testing and quality control lab (TTQC Lab) in the Industry.
- TTQC lab in the educational institute.
- TTQC lab in the research institute.
- Commercial TTQC lab.
- Port TTQC lab.
- TTQC lab in the standardizing house.
- TTQC lab in the buying house.
- TTQC lab in the dyestuff market.
- TTQC lab in the arm force or defense department.
There are various types of TTQC lab from which you can test your product quality.
Stain test is another fiber identification process. I have already written about the solubility test which is a chemical testing method. This type of test show the natural shades of the fiber. All the fibers have not same natural color and it can find out by treated the fibers with the drop of zinc chloro-iodide reagent.
Procedure Of Stain Test To identify The Textile fibers: Here, I have described about the stain test for identiy the textile fiber. Here it is-
- At first, different natural fibers are taken for test.
- A few fibers are placed on the microscopical slide.
- A drop of zinc chloro-iodide reagent is apply on the fiber and cover with a cover slip taking care to avoid bubbles.
- Examine the fibers for staining.
- By the observation, we will find the following results-
- Hemp, Ramie and cotton stain violet.
- Flax stain brownish violet.
- Jute stain brown.
- Many other fibers stain shades of yellow brown including silk.
- Warm a few fresh fibers on a microscopical slide with a drop of acid Phlorogucinol reagent.
- Woody fibers such as unbleached jute stain deep magenta because of presence of Lignin.
So, after observing the test sample we can decide about the fiber. It is most common process for know the natural shade of the fiber. Also, we can carry out density test, drying twist test and others for identify the fibers.