Category Archives: Fabric Manufacturing Technology

Loom Motions Mechanism || Classification Of Loom Motions

Weaving is done by interlacing of warp and weft yarn. In order to making a normal or fancy designed fabric, it is essential to weave. Weaving is done by different types of loom. Loom is run by a define motion mechanism. Here, I have described the motion of loom.

Classification Of Loom Motion: In order to produce weaved fabric, it is essential to done three necessary motions. They are-

  1. Primary motions
  2. Secondary motions
  3. Tertiary motions

Now, I like to classify above classification. They are-

Primary motions: The mechanism without which it is not possible to weave a fabric that is called fundamental or primary motion. Primary motions are divided into three parts. They are-

  • Shedding mechanism: Shedding mechanism is done by separating warp yarns into two layers. Shedding helps to pass shuttle or other device from one part to other parts of shuttle box.
  • Picking mechanism: Picking is done through shed. By the picking mechanism, weft yarn pass from one box to other box.
  • Beating mechanism: Beating is done by pushing the newly inserted length of weft yarn.

Above three motions have a specific motion ratio, by which primary motion is completed.

Secondary motions: Secondary motions are important after primary motion. Secondary motions are-

  • Let-off motion: Let off motion is called warp control motion. This motion delivers warp yarn to weaving area at the required rate. Let off is done from the weavers beam.
  • Take-up motion: After weaving the fabric, it is required to collect the fabric in a roll form. Take up motion withdraws fabrics from the weaving area at the constant rate.

Tertiary motions: Tertiary motion is done to smooth the weaving process. This is done for high productivity and good quality of fabric. This is done additionally for this reason it is also called auxiliary motion. Tertiary motions are-

  • Warp stop motion
  • Weft stop motion
  • Warp protector mechanism
  • Warp mixing motion
  • Cutter
  • Temples
  • Brake
  • Selvedge
  • Tension Sensor

So, that’s all about loom motions.

Basic Weave Structures For Fabric manufacturing

Weave structures is the design by which fabric is produced. The yarns are used in various ways to produce different weave effects. Different simple and complex fabric design is produced by the weave structures. The loom is set according to the fabric structure. Specific loom is used for producing special types of design. We can say jacquard and dobby which two are used for making special design on the fabric.

Basic Weave Structures for Fabric manufacturing

There are three basic weave structures for fabric manufacturing. They are:

  1. Plain Weave
  2. Twill Weave
  3. Satin Weave or Sateen Weave

On the other hand, there are lots of derivatives of the above basic weave. Followings are the most important weave structures.

  • Cut Pile
  • Uncut Pile
  • Leno
  • Jacquard
  • Dobby
  • Basket Weave
  • Rib Weave
  • Herringbone Weave
  • Oxford Weave
  • Double Knit

Now, I like to give a short idea about above weave design.

Plain weave is produced when each weft yarn passes over and under each warp yarn with each row alternatives. It is the simplest form of weave structure.

Twill weave is similar to plain weave, in this the warp yarn skip at regular predetermined intervals creating a diagonal rib in the fabric surface. Twill weave is more flexible than plain weave.

Satin weave is so called when fabric is manufactured by filament yarn like silk or nylon. Flexible fabric is produced by this weave structure. In the other hand, when fabric design is produced by short staple yarns like cotton that is called sateen weave. In satin structure, the face of the fabric consists only the warp on the weft threads giving the fabric a smooth and lustrous surface.

Cut pile is specially used for a carpet fabric where the face of the fabric is composed of cut ends of pile yarn.

Uncut pile is a pile of carpet consisting of loops.

Leno weaves, in this the warp yarns are arranged in pairs. One yarn being twisted the other between picks of the filling yarn.

Jacquard weave is used for producing complex patterns on the fabric. Jacquard loom is used for creating jacquard weave.

Dobby weave is a decorative weave, which is characterized by small design or geometric figures being woven in the fabric structure.

Basket weave is one of the variations of plain weave where fabric has a loose constructions and flat look. It is strong and flexible than basic plain weave.

Rib weave is a basic weave in which rib cord is produced on the fabric. Abrasion and tearing strength of the rib weave is high.

If you want to produce a fine, soft and light weight fabric then you have to consider oxford weave which is a modification of plain weave. It is generally used for apparels.

Double knit is a knit fabric which is produced in circular knitting machine. Double knit fabric has loops on both sides.

So, there are a lots of weave design. The weave design is one of the arts in textile manufacturing. So, try to create new design.

Types Of Sizing Application Methods | Technical Changes Due To Sizing

Sizing is called the heart of weaving. Sizing is the process by which a protective adhesive coating is applies on a yarn surface. It increases the efficiency of weaving process.
Types of sizing: Sizing process is classified as follow:

  • Pure Sizing: Application of size ingredients up to 10%.
  • Light Sizing: Application of size ingredients 11% to 15%.
  • Medium Sizing: Application of size ingredients 16% to 20%.
  • Heavy Sizing: Application of size ingredients above 40%.

Types of sizing application methods or techniques: There are different application processes by which size materials are applied on yarn surface. Followings are the application methods.

  1. Hot melting sizing
  2. Solvent sizing
  3. Foam sizing
  4. High pressure sizing
  5. Electrostatic sizing
  6. Emulsion sizing
  7. Combined sizing
  8. Slasher sizing

Drying system: After application of size materials on yarn surface, it needs to dry to fix the size on the yarn. Following are the drying system.

  1. Two cylinder drying
  2. Multi cylinder drying
  3. Hot air drying
  4. Infrared drying
  5. Combined drying

Technical changes due to sizing: After application of size ingredients on the yarn surface, following changes are occurred. They are:

  • Increase in breaking strength.
  • Increase stiffness.
  • Increase abrasion resistance.
  • Increase elasticity.
  • Increase smoothness.
  • Increase actual diameter, but decrease apparent diameter.
  • Decrease in hairiness.
  • Decrease in extension.
  • Decrease elastistatic charge.

Sizing is done during beam preparation. If sizing is done perfectly then it is possible to get a good qualified woven fabric.
So, we should be careful about the application of the sizing and its drying system.