We know that, fiber is that which is 100 times longer than its width. A fiber which could be spun for yarn production that is called textile fiber. Textile fiber is used for producing different types of woven, non-woven and knitted fabrics.
Textile fiber which is used for yarn or fabric production that should have some properties. Generally physical, chemical and structural properties is important to know for know the textile fiber. Here, I have given a list of properties name which is required to know.
Physical Properties: I have given the physical properties name with their unit. A textile fiber should have the following physical properties. They are as follow:
- Tenacity / Specific Strength (g/den)
- Length (cm/inch)
- Fineness (mic-value)
- Moisture Regain (MR %) and Moisture Content (MC %)
- Specific Gravity (g/cc)
- Elongation (cum/inch)
- Elastic Recovery (%)
- Initial Young Modulus (g/den)
- Breaking Length (km)
- Extension (%)
- Swelling R Water Relation %
- Static Electrification
- Glass-Transmission Temperature (T9)
- Crystalline Melting Point (Tm)
- Specific Heat
- Burning Behavior
- Thermal Conductivity
- Pilling Behavior
- Limited Oxygen Demand (LOI %)
Chemical Properties: To identify a textile fiber, following properties plays an important role. Chemical properties are-
- Chemical Composition
- Effects of Acids
- Effects of Alkalis
- Effects of Organic Solvents
- Effects of Insects
- Effect of micro-Organism
Structural Properties: All of textile fibers have its own structure by which it can be identify.
I. Fine Structure and Appearance
II. Micro Structure
- X-Sectional View
- Longitudinal View
So, when we will describe about any textile fiber we have to determine the above physical, chemical and structural properties.
Polyester is a very important manmade fiber. Polyester is produced with a long chain synthetic polymer with ester. Polyester is produced by melt spinning process. Here, I have given physical and chemical properties of polyester fiber which is important to know.
Physical Properties of Polyester: Like cotton or other fiber, polyester fiber consists of some important physical properties. Important physical properties of polyester are given below.
- Tenacity: 5 – 7 gm/den
- Elongation at break: 15 – 30%
- Elastic modulus: 90
- Elasticity: Good
- Moisture Regain (MR%): 0.40%
- Specific Gravity: 1.38
- Melting point: 2500C
- Volumetric Swelling: None
- Ability to protest friction: Excellent
- Color: White
- Light reflection ability: Good
- Lusture: Bright
Chemical Properties of Polyester: Various types of chemical properties of polyester fiber are given below:
- Acids: Good resistance to acids in cold condition. But polyester degrades by H2SO4 at high temperature.
- Basic: Good resistance to basic in cold condition but Strong NaOH dissolves polyester in boiling.
- Effect of bleaching: Polyester does not affected by bleaching process.
- Organic solvent: Organic solvent does not affect on polyester fiber.
- Protection ability against mildew: Good
- Protection ability against insects: Good
- Dyes: Polyester could be dye with disperse, azoic color and some pigments.
- Solvents of polyester: Following are the solvents of polyester:
- Chlorinated hydrocarbon.
- Phenol (in hot condition)
So, during processing of polyester, we have to consider the physical and chemical properties of polyester.
Synthetic fiber is that which is made from different types of polymers. It is not cultivated as the natural fiber. Manmade fiber is produced from the reaction between different types of monomers. By the polymerization process, a long chain of polymer is produced. Then filament is produced by the various spinning process. Various types of synthetic fiber are available in the market Day by day its availability increases for its cheap price. But there has lots of bad effect of man made fiber to the environment.
Now I will show you how manmade fiber is produced?
Process Flow Chart of Synthetic Fiber Production: The process flow chart of various synthetic fibers is differing from one to another but basic process is same. Here, I have given a flow chart of synthetic fiber production which is same for all. It is the basic sequence of man made fiber production.
Raw Materials / monomers
Drawing and Stretching
Technical operation in man made fiber production: Various types of technical operations are involved with the synthetic fiber production. They are as follow:
- Preparation of spinning fluid from solid polymers or directly from monomers.
- Spinning that is extrusion of the spinning fluid through small dies (Spinnerets). Extension of the emerging fluid jets into filaments of revived, thickness, accompanied by solidification of the obtained filaments on a suitable mechanical device
- Mechanical, thermal and chemical treatment is applied on filaments to improve their characteristics and performance.
So, it is not so easy to produce manmade fiber from the monomers. One should apply above techniques for synthetic fiber production.